‘Atiqot 84 (2016)
An Early Bronze Age I–Early Bronze Age III Occupation Sequence at Tamra, Western Galilee (with a contribution by Ofer Marder)
Keywords: Lower Galilee, pattern combing, typology, ethnicity, settlement pattern, flint, grain wash
The excavation at Tamra yielded important information concerning the Early Bronze Age on the eastern edge of the ‘Akko plain. The first recognizable settlement was established during EB IB. This phase was followed by an EB II settlement, whose pottery assemblage was typically dominated by a large number of Metallic Ware vessels. The major contribution of the excavation, however, is the documentation of an established settlement during EB III. The discovery of an EB III occupation that includes Khirbet Kerak Ware finally introduces this period and its pottery repertoire into the plain.
A Burial Cave from the Intermediate Bronze Age and the Middle Bronze Age West of Tel Hazor
(Hebrew, pp. 1*–11*; English summary, pp. 119–120)
Keywords: Northern Israel, burial practices, population, anthropology, typology
The burial cave was hewn into the side of a chalk spur southwest of the large rampart in the Lower City of Hazor. The entry to the cave was via a square shaft, at the bottom of which was an opening that led into a rectangular chamber, followed by another, elliptically-shaped chamber with a central stone platform. The two chambers yielded skeletal remains of at least seven children and adults, as well as potsherds and limestone beads from the Intermediate Bronze Age, and an intact jar and a jug from early in the Middle Bronze Age. It seems that the cave was first quarried out and used in the Intermediate Bronze Age, probably by the inhabitants of the neighboring settlement at Tel Hazor. The cave was reused for burial early in MB I.
A Note on the Provenance of Black Wheel-Made Vessels from a Burial Cave West of Tel Hazor
Keywords: petrography, geography, geology, matrix
A petrographic analysis was undertaken to determine the source of the raw materials used in the production of the Intermediate Bronze Age Black Wheel-Made Ware (BWMW) vessels retrieved from a burial cave west of Tel Hazor. The BWMW repertoire is limited to goblets, cups, jars, kraters, teapots and bottles; its distribution seems to be largely restricted to northern Israel, particularly to the Hula Valley. The aims of this study were to identify the raw materials that were used to manufacture the selected vessels, determine their geological sources and assess possible geographic regions of manufacture.
Excavations at Tel Shunem (Sulam), Areas G and G1
Karen Covello-Paran and Eran Arie
Keywords: Jezreel Valley, Egypt, regionalism, mud bricks, silo, typology, duck bowl, vessel distribution, petrography, flint, ground stone tools
The excavation revealed five strata, dating from Late Bronze Age III (Stratum V), early Iron Age I (Stratum IV), Iron Age I (Stratum III/3), and the Roman (Stratum 2), Byzantine (Stratum III/1) and modern (Stratum I) periods. The ceramic assemblage of the LB III stratum is characteristic of the end of Egyptian rule in Canaan (Dynasty XX). This Canaanite site was destroyed in the second half of the twelfth century BCE, probably as part of the collapse of Egyptian rule in Canaan. A successive occupation of the site occurred during Iron I, as indicated by the pottery assemblage and supported by biblical and historical sources. Fragmentary remains from the Middle Roman period (mid-third century CE) were found, probably belonging to dispersed farmsteads, including grinding installations, mosaic-paved installations and floors. The Byzantine architectural remains date to the fifth century CE, and perhaps continued in use until the Early Islamic period.
Petrographic Examination of the Ceramic Vessels from Tel Shunem (Sulam)
Keywords: petrography, geology, mineralogy; silt size, optical properties, firing temperature
A total of 20 ceramic vessels dating to LB III–Iron I were sampled for petrographic examination. The results of the examination were compared with the natural geology and lithology of the surroundings, existing petrographic databases and prior research results. Five petrographic groups were identified according to their matrix and temper affinities: Groups 1–3 were locally made, Group 4 was produced in the upper and central Jordan Valley and Group 5 was probably imported from the South Lebanese coast.
A Late Bronze Age Pottery Assemblage from Tel Hadid (el-Haditha)
(Hebrew, pp. 13*–22*; English summary, p. 121)
Alla Nagorsky and Eli Yannai
Keywords: burial, anthropology, typology
A salvage excavation on the southwestern face of Tel Hadid reached the bottom of a water cistern. The cistern’s ceiling probably collapsed in antiquity, sealing its contents. The fill contained a large quantity of human skeletal remains and pottery from the end of the Late Bronze Age (thirteenth–twelfth centuries BCE), suggesting that the assemblage originated in an adjacent cave.
Human Skeletal Remains from a Cistern at Tel Hadid (el-Haditha)
(Hebrew, p. 23*–24*; English summary, p. 122)
Keywords: anthropology, burial, demography
Human skeletal remains were found in a Byzantine water cistern at Tel Hadid. The scattered bones were mixed with grave goods dated to the Late Bronze Age, probably the result of the clearance of adjacent graves. The bones were in a very poor state of preservation, and included mostly teeth. The bones from Tel Hadid represent at least 20 individuals, including infants, children, sub-adults and adults, typical of a regular historic cemetery population.
The Agricultural Landscape of the ‘Zippor Compound’ in Modi‘in
(Hebrew, pp. 25*–60*; English summary, pp. 123–124)
Keywords: landscape archaeology, industry, carbon 14, charcoal
Three excavation areas were opened, exposing terraces, enclosure walls, dams, stone-clearance heaps, cairns, watchman’s booths, roads, winepresses, fence walls, caves or rock shelters, limekilns, cup marks and cisterns. The excavation recovered very little pottery. The site probably began to be intensively farmed in the Iron Age and Persian period. It reached its peak in the Late Hellenistic–Early Roman periods, when almost all the features in the compound were in use. A limited activity in the compound took place during the Byzantine period, continuing into the Early Islamic period.
An Overview of the Agricultural Landscape of the ‘Zippor Compound’ in Modi‘in
(Hebrew, pp. 61–63; English summary, p. 125)
Keywords: landscape archaeology, industry, agriculture, settlement, church
Trial mapping was conducted at Horbat Tittora with the aim of providing a spatial view of the dozens of agricultural installations excavated, and to examine them as part of a nearby settlement. The area yielded a dense cluster of farming terraces, water cisterns, building remains, a scattering of building stones and rock-hewn agricultural installations that become sparser as the distance increased from Horbat Tittora.
A Burial Cave from the Second–First Centuries BCE near ‘En Gedi
(with a contribution by Yossi Nagar)
(Hebrew, pp. 65*–78*; English summary, pp. 126–127)
Amir Ganor and Sa‘ar Ganor
Keywords: burial, funerary offerings, double nozzle lamp, linen, cord, organic substance, anthropology, metal
The cave was hewn in a cliff; it has a roughly square plan. A corridor leads to three hewn steps with a standing pit at the bottom. Wide benches, on three sides of the standing pit, were used to place the deceased and their funerary offerings. An ossuary with a lid and four legs, was found, decorated with incised motifs. The cave yielded skeletal remains belonging to 13 individuals and pottery dated to the second–first centuries BCE. A few bronze artifacts were also recovered: a ladle, small bottles,
sticks and amulets. The cave appears to have been a family burial cave that was used in the Hasmonean and Herodian periods.
A Hoard of
Keywords: numismatics, agriculture, rural settlement, Roman rulers, chronology, typology, metallurgy, Quleh
The Qula hoard (n = 2019) was found in a farmhouse located within the hinterland of Diospolis (Roman Lydda). The hoard consists exclusively of radiate
, containing less than 50% silver, which were issued by the Roman emperors in the third century CE. The exact reasons for the concealment of the hoard remain unclear. The hoard’s composition suggests that it was deposited in the early 290s CE, before the new currencies of Diocletian’s reform (293/4–296 CE) were introduced. The coins were issued almost exclusively in Eastern mints (Antioch, ‘Samosata’ and Tripolis), indicating that the coins from these mints circulated locally. The deposition date of the Qula hoard in the late 290s CE parallels at least eight other Syrian hoards with similar composition and deposit dates. This phenomenon seems to suggest that the hoarding of
was the consequence of the monetary reforms of Diocletian and the subsequent hyperinflation that occurred between 293 and 301 CE.
For the Coin Catalogue
The Church of Bishop Johannes at Horbat Barqa, Gan Yavne
(with a contribution by Leah Di Segni)
(Hebrew, pp. 79*–88*; English summary, p. 128)
Keywords: southern coastal plain, Christianity, epigraphy, Greek inscription, mosaic, chancel screen, glass, numismatics, pottery
A Byzantine church was uncovered at the site. It was divided by two rows of pillars into a nave and two narrow aisles, and was entered from an atrium in the west via three openings. The nave was paved with a colored mosaic, of which nine rows were uncovered. The central vertical row contained a Greek dedicatory inscription, which dates the erection of the church to the time of Bishop Johannes in 511/12 CE. Fragments of liturgical furniture were found scattered in the nave, together with pottery fragments and roof tiles. This church is an important contribution to our understanding of the distribution of churches in the southern coastal plain.
A Mosaic Floor in the Church of Bishop Johannes at Horbat Barqa, Gan Yavne
(Hebrew, pp. 89*–126*; English summary, pp. 129–132)
Keywords: Christianity, iconography, art, symbols, Christ
Mosaic pavements were uncovered in the nave and in the atrium of the Church of Bishop Johannes at Horbat Barqa. Of the mosaic carpet in the nave nine rows were preserved; a large central medallion containing a circle of harmony and another large medallion with a dedicatory inscription emphasize its main axis. The mosaic is decorated with vine scrolls populated with still life objects, fauna, birds and daily scenes, alongside motifs with of religious significance. The mosaic floor, made in a flat, schematic style, is similar in style, composition and iconography to mosaic floors from the early sixth century CE in Gaza and the northern Negev. The atrium mosaic was partially preserved. Most of it is a white mosaic comprising a border of three rows of tesserae set in straight lines and a carpet with tesserae laid diagonally.
Fragments of Liturgical Furniture from the Church of Bishop Johannes at Horbat Barqa, Gan Yavne
(Hebrew, pp. 127*–141*; English summary, pp. 133–135)
Keywords: Christianity, iconography, art, symbols, Sacra Mensa, liturgy, art, metal, inlay
The excavation at Horbat Barqa yielded fragments of marble liturgical furniture belonging to an altar table, two chancel-screen panels—one solid and one with a lace pattern—as well as a silver-plated bronze cross with holes, which was probably inlaid in an architectural element. Based on parallels, the chancel screens seem to have been decorated with the
), which symbolizes Christ, the redemption and the salvation that he brought, and the triumph over death. The liturgical area of the apse and the
were not preserved; however, the altar-table fragments and the chancel screens provide evidence for their existence.
The Pottery from the Church of Bishop Johannes at Horbat Barqa, Gan Yavne
Keywords: typology, technology, roof tiles, ceramics, production, industry
The pottery can be generally dated within the range of the fifth and the early seventh centuries CE, in accordance with the date on the dedication inscription of the church. The assemblage includes Late Roman C Ware, storage jars and tegula roof tiles. The dark, rich alluvial soil of the Marzeva trough, upon which Barqa is situated, provided an excellent source of raw material for pottery vessels, as is also evinced by the nearby pottery workshop discovered in previous excavations.
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