‘Atiqot 63 (2010)
Settlement Remains from the Bronze and Iron Ages at Horbat Menorim (El-Manara), Lower Galilee
Keywords: Yavne’el Valley, Four Room House, Black-on-Red Ware
The previously unexcavated site of Horbat Menorim overlooks the Sea of Galilee and enjoys several springs located on its slopes. Three strata were exposed at the site, including well-preserved architectural elements dating to Early Bronze Age I and Iron Age IIA. Pottery dating from the Intermediate Bronze Age and Middle Bronze Age IIB was found as well. The EB I and Iron IIA pottery assemblages closely connect the site to the region of the Yavne’el Valley, to sites such as Tel Yin‘am and Tel Adami. It seems that the location of the site on the passage of the caravan route Darb el-Hawarna, connecting the coastal highway with Transjordan, influenced its economy and cultural connections.
Middle Bronze Age II Remains at Khirbat ‘Addasa
(Hebrew, pp. 1*–16*; English summary, pp. 229–230)
Zvi Greenhut and Zubair ‘Adawi
Keywords: Jerusalem, agricultural hinterland, hill country
At Khirbat ‘Addasa, some 8 km north of the city of Jerusalem, fragmentary architectural remains were uncovered, dating to Middle Bronze Age II. The pottery assemblage yielded vessel types characteristic of the rural habitation in the central mountain region. The site joins contemporary sites to its north and west, all of which were small open settlements.
Iron Age I Tombs in the Azor Cemetery
(with a contribution by Anat Cohen-Weinberger)
(Hebrew, pp. 17*–40*; English summary, pp. 231–232)
Aviva Buchennino and Eli Yannai
Keywords: burial, Cypriot vessels
Within the boundaries of the ancient cemetery at Azor several Iron Age I tombs were discovered. The tombs represent four burial types: pits, burial jars, mudbrick-built tombs and cist graves lined with
slabs. The burial offerings comprise local wares, as well as imported vessels, some dating from Late Bronze Age IIB. Also uncovered at the site were a refuse pit from the Byzantine–Umayyad periods and thirteen tombs, probably from the Ottoman period.
A Seventh-Century BCE Site near Tel ‘En Zippori
Aviram Oshri and Zvi Gal
Keywords: Lower Galilee, hill country, Israelites, Tiglath Pileser III, bodeda
The Small tell of ‘En Zippori is located in a fertile valley, near the cluster of springs known as ‘Ayanot Zippori. Meager structural remains were uncovered at the site, revealing a one-stratum occupation, dated to the seventh–early sixth centuries BCE. The pottery, found
on the bedrock floor and covered with ash, exhibits both coastal and inland ceramic traditions, including typical Iron Age II forms and later Persian-period types. The site underwent a violent destruction, probably during the Assyrian campaign led by Tiglath Pileser III, and was subsequently abandoned.
Iron-Age Quarries, Second Temple-Period Installations and an Ottoman Watchtower on the Southern Slope of Mount Scopus, Jerusalem
Keywords: loculus tombs, kokhim, miqveh, ossuaries, earthquake
The southern slope of Mount Scopus is characterized by soft white limestone, which served in ancient times for hewing tombs and quarrying stones. Within one of the quarries, installations dating to the Second Temple period were exposed, post-dating the quarrying activity, which should be attributed to the Iron Age. The tombs documented on the slopes of Mount Scopus are of the loculi type, belonging to the northern necropolis of Jerusalem in the late Second Temple period. Based on the plan of the tombs, as well as the ossuaries and pottery finds found within one of them, it appears that they served Jewish families. A partially preserved watchtower, dating to the nineteenth century CE, was exposed. It was destroyed by an earthquake, which also bisected the ancient quarries, probably during the days of the British Mandate.
Four Pottery Assemblages from the Southern Slope of Mount Scopus, Jerusalem
Anna de Vincenz
Keywords: roof tiles, kutahya cups
The pottery finds from the excavation on the southern slope of Mount Scopus consist of vessel types characteristic of Jerusalem during Iron Age II and the Early Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods. The finds discussed were found in the Quarry, the miqveh, within Burial Cave 1 and from the Ottoman-period watchtower.
Artifact Assemblages from Two Roman Shipwrecks off the Carmel Coast
Ehud Galili, Baruch Rosen and Jacob Sharvit
Keywords: underwater excavations, nautical equipment, fishing gear, figurative art
Rescue operations on the shallow seabed off the Carmel coast retrieved ancient artifacts from two Roman-period shipwrecks. More than 1000 metal objects were retrieved, including nails, lead sheathing, anchors, lead rings, fishing gear, netting tools, figurines, jewelry and various other daily implements used onboard. Scores of silver and bronze coins attributable to two hoards were found, indicating that two ship wreckages occurred at the site: one during the third century CE and the other during the fourth century CE.
Coin Hoard from a Third-Century CE Shipwreck off the Carmel Coast
Keywords: hoard, silver denars, currency, circulation
Some 162 coins were retrieved from the shipwreck site off the Carmel coast, originating from a third-century CE ship. The hoard consists of 71 silver coins, 86 bronze coins, three billon and two lead tesserae. Dominating the hoard are 68 Roman denars, dating from Claudius to Marcus Aurelius. The coin hoard allows us to easily trace the route of the wrecked ship. It apparently sailed from Alexandria and anchored along the Mediterranean Sea at Ashqelon, Jaffa, Caesarea Maritima, ‘Akko-Ptolemais, Tyre, Berytus, Antioch and the southern coast of Asia Minor, and from there to Rome via Greece.
Coin Hoard from a Fourth-Century CE Shipwreck off the Carmel Coast
Donald T. Ariel
Keywords: hoard, copper folles, currency
A total of 75 coins, dated to a quite restricted period within the fourth century CE, were most probably part of a hoard. All the coins are copper
denomination; most of them derive from western mints, particularly Rome, as would be expected for the first quarter of the fourth century CE in the southern Levant. This hoard conforms to the currency inland.
Late Byzantine Remains near Shiqmona: A Monastery, a Cemetery and a Winepress
Keywords: monastery, mosaics, clay coffin, arcosolia tombs, screw press
Excavation at the site of Shiqmona, east of the Tel Aviv–Haifa highway, revealed finds from the late Byzantine period, including a monastery, a large winepress, a dozen rock-cut tombs and two large buildings. The monastery is a large building, incorporating the chapel excavated by Makhouly in 1940, which was re-discovered. The monastery was dated on the basis of the meager pottery finds to the sixth century CE. North and south of the chapel were found marble and stone fragments, probably originating from the chapel, adorned with motifs known from mosaics of the same period. The finds here point that Shiqmona was probably a city, not a village as previously suggested. The monastery was located outside the city proper, where other monasteries were also discovered, coexisting side by side with the city.
Pottery from the Late Byzantine Remains near Shiqmona
Keywords: imported vessels, impressed decorations, tiles
The pottery from the Byzantine monastery near Shiqmona was found in three loci, sealed beneath the chapel floor; they date the construction of the floor to the sixth–seventh centuries CE. The finds from the buildings include bases with impressed decorations—male figures, a rabbit and a cross—common in the late fifth–early sixth centuries CE. The pottery from the winepress was found in the collecting pits, which later became waste dumps, comprising vessels from the sixth century CE, most of which continued until the seventh century. The finds from the tombs, although robbed or disturbed prior to the excavation, also date to the sixth–seventh centuries CE, and thus, probably indicate the period of their use. As a whole, the assemblage from Shiqmona is typical of northern sites on the coast of Israel.
Glass from the Late Byzantine Remains near Shiqmona
Keywords: glass production, workshops, window pane
The excavation at Shiqmona yielded 425 glass fragments of local types, known from almost all nearby sites, as well as production waste. The finds from this excavation are probably connected with the glass production activity encountered in many sites in the area of the Haifa bay and Mount Carmel, attesting to the prosperity of this craft in the area during the Late Roman and Byzantine periods.
Coins from the Late Byzantine Remains near Shiqmona
Keywords: Vandalic bronze, nummi, pentanummi, folles
The coins from Shiqmona were uncovered in the remains of the monastery, the buildings, within the winepress and on the surface above the winepress. Out of the fifteen identified coins, fourteen date to one continuous period, from the early fourth century until the reign of the Byzantine emperor Justinian II; one is an Ayyubid copper
. Comparison with the numismatic evidence from previous excavations at Shiqmona, in 1994 and 1998, shows similarities in periodization and types of coins in circulation.
Bones from the Late Byzantine Remains near Shiqmona
Keywords: Osteology, physical anthropology, deceased
Human skeletal remains, in a poor state of preservation, were retrieved from the burial caves at Shiqmona. Sex and age estimations are presented according to caves.
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