‘Atiqot 62 (2010)
The Early Bronze Age Site of Me‘ona in the Western Galilee
(Hellenistic Amphora Fragments, by Gerald Finkielsztejn)
Keywords: potter’s mark, perforated sherds, glyptics, cylinder seal
This Early Bronze Age site is mostly covered by the modern cemetery of Moshav Me‘ona in the western Galilee. Soundings conducted at the site revealed a considerable quantity of artifacts, mostly potsherds, but also flint, a basalt bowl and a bone cylinder, dating to Early Bronze Age I and II. The pottery types in the assemblage suggest that the western Galilee is a region with distinct ceramic styles in EB I. The site seems to have been abandoned at the end of EB II, as there is no sign of activity in EB III. Later, in the Hellenistic and Roman–Byzantine periods, it was utilized for agricultural purposes.
A Salvage Excavation near Tel Regev
(Hebrew, pp. 1*–14*; English summary, p. 169)
Zach Horovich and Doron Lipkunsky
Keywords: Carmel, Early Bronze Age, rampart
In a salvage excavation conducted north of Tel Regev, at the foot of the Carmel Ridge, two strata were exposed, dating from the Early Bronze Age and the Byzantine period. An artificial fill, comprising a compact, uniform layer of crushed lime, was unearthed, containing an abundance of EB I–III sherds. It was evidently constructed with debris from the adjacent tell, probably serving a non-military rampart, built to protect the tell from flooding by nearby Nahal Zippori. Based on the finds, it seems that the “rampart” was built toward the end of the Early Bronze Age.
Middle Bronze Age Tombs at Fassuta
Lilly Gershuni and Mordechai Aviam
Keywords: warrior tomb, Tell el-Yahudiyeh Ware, Sobhotep group
Located in the northern upper Galilee, the ancient site was established on a hill named Fasil Danyal, in the vicinity of which are several springs. A salvage excavation was undertaken in two built tombs, damaged during construction in the village of Fassuta. Tomb 1 is rock-cut, rectangular-shaped and covered with limestone slabs. It contained pottery vessels, metal artifacts — among them weapons and a bronze belt and buckle — and a steatite scarab of Neferhotep I (an heirloom). Tomb 2 is much smaller, consisting of only a modest content, including a votive bowl. The tombs were probably part of a large cemetery, dating to the transitional MB I–II, toward the end of the eighteenth century BCE.
The Metal Objects from Fassuta
Keywords: metallurgy, Middle Bronze Age, recycling metal
Six of the metal items recovered from Tomb 1 at Fassuta were sampled and analyzed. The chemical analysis revealed that five of the items were made of tin bronze and one item, a shaft-hole axe, was made of arsenic copper with lead. Interestingly, it was noted that during the Middle Bronze Age levels of lead at 4% or more are only found in this type of axe and in the duckbill-shaped axe. It can be said that the metallurgical profiles of the objects from Fassuta well fit our knowledge of archaeometallurgy of MB I (MB IIA).
Animal Bone Remains from Fassuta
Liora Kolska Horwitz
Keywords: animal taxa, bone selection, prime cuts, ritual
A total of 39 animal bones were recovered from the Middle Bronze Age tombs at Fassuta. The bone sample, although small, closely resembles fauna recovered from contemporary tombs in the country. The remains of domestic sheep and goats are most common in the assemblage, with immature animals predominant.
A Middle Bronze Age Tomb at Kibbutz Ma‘alē Ha-Hamisha
(Hebrew, pp. 15*–20*; English summary, p. 170)
Keywords: Jerusalem periphery, Middle Bronze Age, cemetery, burial goods
A tomb, unearthed in Kibbutz Ma‘ale Ha-Hamisha, was completely preserved, dating from Middle Bronze Age IIA–B. The tomb yielded numerous finds, some of which were intact. Worth of mention are a Tell el-Yahudiyeh juglet, exhibiting a non-frequent decoration, a rare two-handled amphoriskos and a dagger made of arsenic copper. The finds from the tomb correspond typologically and geographically to the finds in the tombs at nearby Moza.
A Local Imitation of a Neo-Babylonian Stamp Seal from a Burial Cave near Gelilot
Keywords: Babylonian art, Babylonian pantheon, symbolism, divine emblems
A burial cave, dating to the second–fourth centuries CE was uncovered at Gelilot in the central coastal plain. Within the finds in the cave was a reused, local imitation of a Neo-Babylonian stamp seal. The impression on the seal shows a common, sixth–fifth century BCE Neo-Babylonian theme of a worshipper in front of the symbols of the gods Marduk and Nabu. The schematized style of the seal, the choice of material (black serpentine) and lack of celestial symbols point to its being a local production.
A Site from the Persian, Hellenistic and Early Islamic Periods at Holot Yavne
(with contributions by Yossi Nagar, Gerald Finkielsztejn, Yael Gorin-Rosen, Yitzhaq Hershko, Donald T. Ariel)
(Hebrew, pp. 21*–46*; English summary, pp. 171–172)
Amir Gorzalczany, Diego Barkan and Livnat Iechie
Keywords: Persian Empire, domestic finds, metallurgy
Excavations conducted at a here-to-far unknown site in Holot Yavne revealed building remains and occupation levels from the Persian, Hellenistic, Byzantine, Early Islamic and Mamluk periods, as well as a Persian-period cemetery. Contrary to the meager architectural remains at the site, the finds were abundant, including pottery, glass vessels, metal objects, stone vessels, stone and clay loomweights, coins and a Rhodian stamp seal. Of special interest are a Persian-period, bronze hemispherical bowl in an excellent state of preservation and a mamluk-period copper bowl etched with engravings and drawings.
A Burial Cave from the Third–Early Fourth Centuries CE at Iqrit
Keywords: loculi (Kokhim) cave, primary burials, burial goods, anthropology
A rock-cut chamber-tomb with plain
, dating to the Late Roman period, was excavated at the site of Iqrit in Upper Galilee. In the tomb were found 26 coins, made of bronze, silver and billon, complete glass vessels—of them an
-shaped bottle is worth of mention—and gold, silver and bronze jewelry. One of the rings was set with a jasper gem depicting a warrior, apparently personifying Alexander the Great. The cave probably belonged to a family who used it for slightly more than a century, from the end of the second to the early fourth centuries CE. The relatively large number of coins found in the cave attests to the pagan belief of paying the ferryman Charon for crossing the River Styx to the netherworld.
The Coins from Iqrit
Keywords: Phoenicia, Upper Galilee, currency, mint, Caron’s obol
Twenty-six coins were found in the burial cave excavated at Iqrit, all of them were identifiable. Several coins are of special interest: two
of the brothers Macrianus II and Quietus, which are rarely found in excavations; a finely preserved coin of Caracalla, which was pierced; and a Sidonian coin depicting Julia Maesa, grandmother of Elagabalus and Severus Alexander, a type yet unpublished. Most of the coins are Roman provincial issues, minted in Phoenician cities, suggesting that Iqrit was strongly oriented to Phoenicia and Syria during the second and third centuries CE.
A Salvage Excavation at Horbat Rozez
Keywords: Carmel, settlement, imported vessels
Horbat Rozez is located on the southeastern slope of Ramat Ha-Nadiv, between Zikhron Ya‘aqov and Binyamina. Excavation at the site exposed six strata, dating from the Iron Age (VI), the Persian (V–IV), Hellenistic (III), Byzantine (II) and Mamluk–Ottoman (I) periods. The architectural remains from Strata V–II point to the domestic nature of the buildings. The pottery finds relate to the occupation periods discovered at the site. Worth of mention are an imported jug from Greece or Western Anatolia and a
from the Persian period; decorated jugs from the Hellenistic period;
jars from the Byzantine period; and ceramic-pipe fragments from the Ottoman period.
The Ceramic Oil Lamps from Horbat Rozez
Keywords: Carmel, Samaritans, menorah
Some 23 lamps were unearthed at the excavation of Horbat Rozez: one dated to the Hellenistic period, one to the Early Roman period, one to the Early Islamic period and the rest to the Byzantine period. All the Byzantine-period lamps, as well as the Early Islamic example, suggest an affinity with the Samaritan culture. The lamp assemblage from Horbat Rozez is typical of that found in other communities on Mount Carmel.
The Byzantine-Period Glass Vessels from Horbat Rozez
Keywords: coastal plain, Carmel, glass production
About one thousand small glass fragments were found at Horbat Rozez, ninety percent of which were associated with the Byzantine period. Most of the vessels were free-blown, a few were mold-blown. The vessel group from Horbat Rozez continues Late Roman traditions, generally dating from the mid-fourth to the late sixth centuries CE. The assemblage is domestic, typically undecorated, comprising mostly bowls and bottles. Noteworthy are a large goblet and
juglets. A deformed glass vessel and two glass-production wasters might attest to a local glass workshop at the site.
The Coins from Horbat Rozez
Keywords: Carmel, Byzantine period, numismatics
Nine of the ten coins, unearthed during the excavation of Horbat Rozez, were identified. Seven of the coins are of the large
type, dating from Justin I until the first years of Heraclius, thus supporting the date of the pottery finds, which do not post-date the sixth century CE.
Radiocarbon Dating of Samples from Horbat Rozez
Dror Segal and Israel Carmi
Keywords: radiocarbon dating, organic material
Four samples from the excavation at Horbat Rozez were analyzed, three of which represent strata from the end of the Iron Age until the Hellenistic period.
A Christian Inscription at Shelomi
Hagit Tahan and Danny Syon
Keywords: late Byzantine Age, Christianity, epigraphy, indiction cycle
During a salvage excavation in the industrial zone at Shelomi in the western Galilee, building remains, including a mosaic pavement, were unearthed. The mosaic featured a fragmentary Greek inscription, probably a dedicatory inscription of a church or a monastery. The inscription was dated on stylistic grounds to the sixth–seventh centuries CE. This dating is further corroborated by the pottery finds and a coin of Justin II found at the site.
Remains from the Medieval and Ottoman Periods on the Eastern Hill of Tell Jatt (Area D)
(Hebrew, pp. 47*–51*; English summary, p. 173)
Keywords: Middle Ages, settlement, Medieval pottery
On the eastern hill of Tell Jatt were uncovered remains from the medieval (twelfth–thirteenth centuries CE) and Ottoman periods. The excavation results demonstrated that contrary to the finds on the tell, which do not post-date the Roman period, the eastern spur of the tell was established during the Byzantine period and continued to be settled in the Crusader, Mamluk and Ottoman periods.
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