‘Atiqot 66 (2011)
A Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age I Burial Ground near Sha‘ar Efrayim in the Sharon Plain
Edwin C.M. van den Brink
Keywords: cemetery, burial containers, grave gifts, mat impression
Near Sha‘ar Efrayim, in the Sharon coastal plain, five karstic burial caves were uncovered, belonging to two burial phases: from the Chalcolothic period and Early Bronze Age I. The finds attributed to the Chalcolithic period included clay coffins and domiform ossuaries—both exhibiting red-painted designs and applied features—and typical pottery vessels, e.g., V-shaped bowls, cornets, fenestrated bowl stands, holemouths, lug handles and a churn(?). The EB I assemblage comprised Gray Burnished Ware, vessels with wavy-ledged handles and high looped handles and a potstand. Other finds include bone objects, beads, metal finds and an outstanding clay female figurine. Post EB I finds were retrieved solely from Cave 4, dating to Middle Bronze Age IIA and Late Bronze Age IIB. The Sha‘ar Efrayim Chalcolithic burial caves are an important link in the long chain of formal burial grounds extending from the Shephelah in the south to the western coastal plain in the north. The reuse of the burial caves during EB I and later is a well-known phenomena at other sites as well.
The Flint Assemblages from Sha‘ar Efrayim Burial Caves 1–3
Keywords: flint, raw material, waste, tools
Analysis of the flint tools retrieved from the Sha‘ar Efrayim burial caves (Nos. 1–3) revealed the presence of Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age artifacts, suggesting a wider time span for the use of the caves. The flint industry was apparently local, mainly exploiting materials in the immediate vicinity of the site.
Provenance Study of Selected Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age I Pottery from Sha‘ar Efrayim
Keywords: petrography, geology, pottery production
The petrographic analysis of the finds from Sha‘ar Efrayim was conducted in an attempt to gain a better understanding of the cultural interaction of the site with other regions. For this purpose, fifteen Chlacolithic-period and Early Bronze Age clay artifacts were examined and grouped according to the characteristics of the raw material. The results shed light on the different raw materials used for specific vessel types in various periods, and provide important data for further discussions, e.g., regarding trade patterns during these periods.
The Faunal Remains from the Burial Caves at Sha‘ar Efrayim
Liora Kolska Horwitz
Keywords: archaeozoology, Gazzela horncores, ostrich shells
The faunal remains from the Sha‘ar Efrrayim burial caves (Nos. 1, 3–5) were attributed to two main periods, in accordance with the other finding in the caves: Late Chalcolithic and Late Chalcolithic–Early Bronze Age I. They comprise a small, but important, sample, representing a wide range of both domestic and wild taxa. These remains seem to be the first convincing evidence of animal offerings in Late Chalcolithic/EB IA contexts in the southern Levant.
The Mollusc Remains from the Burial Caves at Sha‘ar Efrayim
Henk K. Mienis
The excavation of the Sha‘ar Efrayim burial caves yielded thirteen shells belonging to two kinds of molluscs—a Cone shell and a Bittersweet—all of which probably served as burial gifts. The presence of a species of Cone shells native to the Red Sea indicates some kind of trade with populations living farther to the south.
Human Skeletal Remains from the Burial Caves at Sha‘ar Efrayim
Keywords: anthropology, cemetery, paleodemography
The anthropological study of the human skeletal remains from the five burial caves at Sha‘ar Efrayim pointed to a difference between the burial traditions of the Chalcolithic population and those of the Early Bronze Age I population. The most prominent difference is the absence of infants in the Chalcolithic burials, in contrast to their presence in the EB I sample. This might indicate there was no population continuity between these two succeeding periods.
Excavations at Rogem Gannim, Jerusalem: Installations of the Iron Age, Persian, Roman and Islamic Periods
Raphael Greenberg and Gilad Cinamon
Keywords: Jerusalem, agricultural hinterland, wine production, administration
Some five kilometers west of ancient Jerusalem lies a large Iron Age tumulus. At the base of this tumulus, rock-cut installations were uncovered, including winepresses, caves and cisterns. The winepresses were first executed during the Iron Age, resembling the type that prevailed in the region west of Jerusalem during that time. The pottery and small finds from the Iron Age/Persian period included mainly storage jars, with a relative abundance of stamped jar handles, alluding to the economical activity at the site. Following the site's abandonment at the end of the Persian period, a rural settlement was established during the Early Roman period; its inhabitants had engaged in industrial activity, reusing the ancient facilities. Later, sporadic activity at the site occurred during the Early Islamic period.
Remains from the Early Roman to the Crusader/Ayyubid Periods at Horbat Borin
(Hebrew, pp. 1*–16*; English summary, p. 155)
‘Abed a-Salam Sa‘id
Keywords: Crusaders, settlement
At Horbat Borin, on the northwestern outskirts of Baqa el-Gharbiya, five occupational strata were discovered, dating from the Early Roman to the Crusader/Ayyubid periods. Potsherds from the Persian, Hellenistic and Mamluk periods were found as well, out of stratigraphical context, probably pointing to a longer occupation at the site. A hiatus in the sequence of occupation during the fourth–fifth centuries CE remains unexplained.
Horbat Gelilot (el-Jelil): Excavations on the Fringes of a Roman–Byzantine Period Village in the Sharon Plain
(Hebrew, pp. 17*–61*; English summary, PP. 156–157)
Etan Ayalon and Yossi Levy
Keywords: Sharon coastal plain, Samaritans, storage facilities, oil production
At the site, located on the outskirts of Herzliyya, many industrial installations were discovered, including a bathhouse, a burial cave, a
(ritual bath), pottery kilns, plastered pools and an olive press, dating to the Roman and Byzantine periods. These were most probably concentrated on the fringes of an ancient village, which was severely damaged in the past and very little is known of it. Historical sources, as well as some of the archaeological finds, probably point to a Samaritan ethnic identity for at least some of the settlement's inhabitants.
The Pottery from Horbat Gelilot
(Hebrew, pp. 63*–78*; English summary, p. 158)
Keywords: Sharon coastal plain, ceramics
The majority of the pottery finds from Horbat Gelilot was retrieved from fills that covered the industrial installations. The finds range in date from the first to the seventh centuries CE and find parallels in the north of the country and along the coastal plain.
Two Lead Braziers from a Roman-Period Shipwreck Off the Ashqelon Coast (Hebrew, pp. 79*–84*; English summary, p. 159)
Ehud Galili and Baruch Rosen
Keywords: marine archaeology, shipwreck, lead stock
Two lead braziers were retrieved from the sea off the Ashqelon coast during an underwater survey. They were probably part of a ship's cargo dated to the first century BCE–third century CE. These finds shed light on the long debated subject of lighting fire abroad ships. An explanation as to how the objects were operated is offered, as well as a reconstruction of their use, either for cooking or for heating liquids.
An Early Byzantine-Period Burial Cave at Kabul
Keywords: cemetery, burial goods, Jewish population
The burial cave excavated at Kabul, in the western Galilee, is of the chamber-tomb type, surrounded by six vaulted chambers, each containing two troughs. The finds in the cave consist of glass vessels, jewelry and a coin—no pottery vessels or lamps were discovered—all dating to the late fourth century CE; a New Kingdom scarab was apparently reused in a piece of jewelry. The cave was probably used for family burial, possibly of a Jewish family, based on the finds and rabbinic sources describing Kabul as a Jewish town.
Crusader Remains in the Muristan, Old City of Jerusalem: A Decade of Archaeological Gleanings
Amit Re’em, Jon Seligman, Zubair ‘Adawi and Rafeh Abu Raya
Keywords: Crusaders, medieval period, architecture, Christianity
The Muristan is located in the heart of the Christian quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. During the twelfth century CE the area was given to the Hospitaller Order of St. John, and it included the following major buildings: a hospital, ecclesiastical buildings and various large secular buildings. During excavations at the site, remains pertaining to these architectural units were discovered, including massive piers and ashlars, displaying typical Crusader diagonal tool marks, and stones bearing mason's marks. The meager finds from these excavations are an important contribution to the reconstruction of the Hospitaller Quarter of Jerusalem during the twelfth century CE.
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