‘Atiqot 78 (2014)
A Burial Cave from the Intermediate Bronze Age and Middle Bronze Age IIC near the Village of Ras ‘Ali, in Nahal Zippori
(Hebrew, pp. 1*–11*; English summary, p. 161)
Zach Horowitz and Doron Lipkunski
Keywords: Galilee, burial goods, anthropology, glyptics
The burial cave was used during two different periods: the Intermediate Bronze Age (Phase 1) and MB IIC (Phase 2). During Phase 1, the cave served for the burial of one individual, whereas in Phase 2, it served for the burial of approximately 25 individuals. The finds from the Phase 2 burial included prolific local and imported ceramic finds, an alabaster vessel, bone-inlay plates, faience beads, metal objects, and four scarabs and a cylinder seal. Following its use during MB IIC, the cave was abandoned.
Three Canaanite Design Scarabs, One Egyptian Obsidian Scarab and One Syrian Cylinder Seal from a Burial Cave near Ras ‘Ali, in Nahal Zippori
Keywords: burial goods, hieroglyphs, art, iconography, typology, glyptics
Four scarabs and a cylinder seal were unearthed in a burial cave near Ras ‘Ali, in Nahal Zippori. Three of the scarabs are made of glazed steatite and one, of obsidian; the seal is made of serpentine. The three glazed steatite scarabs are locally made Canaanite products, while the obsidian scarab seems to have been imported from Egypt. The cylinder seal is a Syrian product that was imported from the Syrian coast, most probably from Ugarit. All the glyptic finds are typical of MB IIC in Canaan (sixteenth century BCE).
Two Rock-Cut Burial Caves and Greek Inscriptions from the Qidron Valley, Jerusalem
Boaz Zissu and Zubair Adawi
Keywords: cemetery, burial goods, epigraphy, ethnicity
Two rock-cut burial caves (I, II), located at the bottom of the western slope of the Qidron Valley, were exposed. Cave I had been breached by antiquities looters in the past and was, therefore, documented only. Cave II was found sealed and was subsequently partially excavated. Two stone slabs (tombstones or tomb closing slabs) bearing Greek inscriptions were uncovered
in the vicinity of the caves. Burial Cave I was dated to the Late Roman–Byzantine periods based solely on its plan. The architecture of Burial Cave II and the finds date its use to the Byzantine period (fifth–sixth centuries CE). Both caves are part of the Late Roman–Byzantine cemetery situated on the slopes of the Qidron Valley, and probably served Christian families dwelling in Jerusalem.
Coins from Two Burial Caves in the Qidron Valley, Jerusalem
Donald T. Ariel
Keywords: cemetery, burial goods, numismatics, Byzantine period
Eighteen coins, sixteen of which were identifiable, were found in the excavation of two rock-cut burial caves on the western slope of the Qidron Valley. Nine coins, dated from the fourth to the sixth centuries CE, may indicate the period of use of the caves.
Human Skeletal Remains from a Burial Cave in the Qidron Valley
Keywords: cemetery, anthropology, osteology, ethnicity, age diffusion
Human skeletal remains were found in five burial troughs and one burial niche in Cave II in the Qidron Valley. They represent the primary burial of at least 27 individuals, including infants, children and adults of both sexes. It seems that the interred were part of the non-Jewish population that resided in Jerusalem during the Byzantine period.
A Byzantine Monastery and Islamic-Period Settlement Remains at Horbat Ma‘on
(Hebrew, pp. 13*–62*, English summary, pp. 162–163)
Pirhiya Nahshoni and Gregory Seriy
Keywords: Persian period, Christianity, marble, historical sources, metal
At Horbat Ma‘on, located in the northwestern Negev, three areas were opened (A–C) and six strata (I–VI) were discerned. The strata date from the Late Roman–early Byzantine to the Late Islamic (fourteenth century CE) periods. In Stratum V, dated to the late Byzantine period, a well-planned complex was erected, consisting of several buildings and at least two streets. The finds included local and imported pottery vessels. Gypsum stoppers were found in one of the rooms, two of them bore the embossed forms of a lion and a cross. The architecture and finds from Stratum V indicate that this must have been a civil center in the Byzantine period. In Stratum IV, dated to the end of the Byzantine period, a church was built. The finds included a bread stamp adorned with a cross and an inscription mentioning the name Stephen. The nature of the architecture and the finds from Strata IV and V point to the existence of a monastery and a church dedicated to St. Stephen at the site.
A Bread Stamp from Horbat Ma‘on
Leah Di Segni
Keywords: monastery, church, Christianity, theology, Christ, epigraphy, Eucharist, eulogiae
A pottery bread stamp was discovered in Stratum IV at Horbat Ma‘on, dated to the end of the Byzantine period. The bread stamp has a disk-shaped base and a round knob handle. The handle top is decorated with a cross and the base of the stamp bears a Greek inscription that reads: “Blessing of (Saint?) Stephen”. The inscription indicates that the stamp was used for preparing buns that were handed out at a church as a memento of a visit to that church. It is proposed that the excavated complex at Horbat Ma‘on included a church of St. Stephen and possibly served as the residence of the bishop of Menois.
Coins from Horbat Ma‘on
(Hebrew, pp. 63*–72*, English summary, p. 164)
Donald T. Ariel and Ariel Berman
Keywords: numismatics, Byzantine period, Early Islamic period, Late Islamic period
Of the 129 coins found at Horbat Ma‘on, 56 could be identified. The earliest coins date to the first century BCE–first century CE through the first half of the third century CE—these may not be related to the settlement at the site. The coins from the last third of the third century until the first quarter of the fifth century CE seem to reflect the Stratum VI occupation there. Strata V–IV are represented by coins later than 423 until the seventh century CE. The remainder of the coins date to the late seventh through ninth centuries CE (Stratum III) and the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries CE (Strata II–I).
Khirbat Din‘ila, Western Galilee: The Survey and Excavations of Three Oil Presses
Rafael Frankel and Nimrod Getzov
Keywords: agriculture, village, chronology, oil press typology, liquid collection, bone scraper, numismatics, Jews, Christians, Crusader documents, Baraitha di-Tehumin, Baraita of the Borders
The excavations at Khirbat Din‘ila revealed four occupation stages at the site, during the Roman, Byzantine, Crusader and Mamluk periods. During the Roman period, a square enclosure and an oil press (Oil Press C) of the beam-press type operated at the site. The pottery from this stage included mostly storage jars and fragments of a discus-type oil lamp. During the Byzantine period, three oil presses (A, B, C) were in use: Oil Presses A and B were of the lever-and-screw press type; Roman-period Oil Press C continued in use in the Byzantine period—its type could not be precisely determined. Potsherds from the Byzantine period (sixth–seventh centuries CE) were found in all the excavated areas, and included many imported wares, among them Cypriot bowls, as well as locally made vessels, such as the Galilean jar and ovoid oil lamps. Crusader-period sherds that were found at the site point to occupation to some extent during this period. Large quantities of Mamluk-period potsherds were found, including complete and restorable vessels, indicating that the final, post-oil press stage should be dated to this period. The site shows a close cultural affinity to the Phoenician coastal area. A lintel with a cross, documented south of the site, suggests that in the Byzantine period the inhabitants of Khirbat Din‘ila were Christians.
The Crusader, Mamluk and Early Ottoman-Period Pottery from Khirbat Din‘ila: Typology, Chronology, Production and Consumption Trends
Edna J. Stern
Keywords: Galilee, Joscelin de Courtenay, Teutonic Knights, territory of Chastiau de Roi, petrography, Troad area
At Khirbat Din‘ila, pottery from the Crusader, Mamluk and perhaps, early Ottoman periods was uncovered. The majority of the assemblage dates to the Mamluk period (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries CE). This is the first Mamluk pottery assemblage in the southwestern Levant in general and Galilee in particular to be comprehensively studied, utilizing quantitative analysis and petrographic analyses. Unglazed wares are very common, comprising vessels used mainly for storing, transferring, preparing and serving food, and include handmade, wheel-made and mold-made wares. A large range of wheel-made glazed types were also found, consisting of cooking wares, table wares and oil lamps. A few imported glazed wares include Soft Paste wares from Syria and some glazed wares from Italy.
Petrographic Study of Selected Mamluk-Period Pottery from Khirbat Din‘ila
Keywords: petrography, geography, polarizing microscope, clay, temper, mineralogy
Twenty-seven vessels dated to the Mamluk period from Khirbat Din‘ila were selected and sampled for petrographic examination. The vessels were divided into four petrographic groups. It was found that all the soil types are known for their use in pottery production throughout human history, as are the use of quartz sand or crushed calcite tempers.
Mamluk and Ottoman Remains in the al-Wata Quarter, Safed (Zefat)
Keywords: Galilee, Hâret al-Wata, numismatics, Baybars, medieval period
The salvage excavation in the al-Wata quarter of Safed revealed that the development of this sector of the city began as early as the early Mamluk period. This is further reinforced by the Arabic historical sources. The pottery suggests that occupation began as early as the thirteenth century, with some vessels clearly dating to the Frankish period. The numismatic study adds credence to this conclusion. The historical data and the archaeological finds, including a seventeenth-century coin, hint that the site was also occupied in the first half of the Ottoman period; however, no building remains from this period were identified.
The Coins from the al-Wata Quarter, Safed (Zefat)
Keywords: Galilee, Hâret al-Wata, numismatics
Thirty-one coins, two of silver and the remainder of bronze and copper, were recovered from the al-Wata quarter in Safed (Zefat). Nineteen of the coins were identified. The earliest are two intrusive coins from the Byzantine period (fourth–second half of the sixth centuries CE). The remaining coins are mostly low-value Mamlūk copper denominations (thirteenth–fourteenth centuries CE), including two identical ‘fesse’
of Lājīn. In addition, an irregularly-shaped dirham fraction was found. Such small silver fractions were minted in large quantities during Baybars’ reign at his Damascus mint and apparently circulated widely in medieval Syria. The latest coin is a silver
from the Ottoman period (seventeenth century CE).
Remains from the Mamluk and Ottoman Periods in the al-Wata Quarter, Safed (Zefat)
(Hebrew, pp. 73*–85*, English summary, p. 165)
Keywords: Galilee, numismatics, tobacco pipes
The excavation on the lower western slope of the city of Safed (Zefat) revealed remains of three buildings built upon bedrock. The occupational sequence extended from the Mamluk period, when the neighborhood was established, through the Ottoman period and until British Mandate times. The finds included pottery, both local and imported, as well as glass finds and coins. These results correspond with historical sources that describe the zenith of the city of Safed in the fourteenth century.
Imported Pottery from the Late Mamluk and Ottoman Periods at the al-Wata Quarter, Safed (Zefat)
Edna J. Stern
Keywords: Galilee, ceramics, typology, economy, Mediterranean, maritime trade, Venetian merchants, Ligurian merchants, Tuscan merchants, harbor of Acre, minor good
Sixteen small sherds of imported pottery vessels dating to the late Mamluk and Ottoman periods (c. fifteenth–eighteenth centuries) were recovered from the residential quarter of Hâret al-Wata in Mamluk Safed,. These sherds belong to ceramic types that are rarely found in Israel, comprising types originating mainly in Italy, as well as Spain and Turkey. Only few such imports are known from the archaeological record. It seems that the presence of imported wares at Safed is related to the fact that it was the capital and main administrative center of Galilee during the Mamluk and Ottoman periods. This supports the economic importance of Safed as attested in the historical sources.
Glass Finds from the al-Wata Quarter, Safed (Zefat)
Keywords: Galilee, glass production
A relatively small amount of glass was found during a trial excavation conducted in the Mamluk and Ottoman residential quarter of Hâret al-Wata in Safed. The corpus comprises several fragments of blown vessels and a few tooled bracelets. This assemblage of common household wares can be attributed to the Mamluk period. The bracelets probably also date to the same period, although they may be later, up to modern times. The glassware was probably locally produced.
Coins from the al-Wata Quarter, Safed (Zefat)
Keywords: Galilee, numismatics
The excavations in the Hâret al-Wata quarter in Safed (Zefat) yielded a few out-of-context finds: a Late Roman coin from the fourth century, a Fatimid silver coin from the eleventh century, and a single Ayyūbid copper coin from the end of the twelfth century. Seven copper
, minted at Dimashq and Iskandariya, represent the main Mamlūk period of the site (thirteenth–fifteenth centuries CE). Five copper
, minted at Dimashq and Egypt in the sixteenth century, represent a relatively short phase during the early Ottoman period.
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