‘Atiqot 72 (2012)
“The Lord Will Roar from Zion” (Amos 1:2): The Lion as a Divine Attribute on a Jerusalem Seal and Other Hebrew Glyptic Finds from the Western Wall Plaza Excavations
Tallay Ornan, Shlomit Weksler-Bdolah, Shua Kisilevitz and Benjamin Sass
Keywords: Jerusalem, Iron Age, epigraphy, art, glyptics, iconography, deity, Yahweh
A stamp seal bearing the image of a roaring lion and a Hebrew legend was found during the excavations of the Western Wall Plaza, Jerusalem. It is the first seal with a lion motif to be published from Iron Age II Jerusalem, and one of only a few from Judah bearing a lion motif. Two other glyptic finds include a fragment of a scaraboid, inscribed in Hebrew, and a bulla, with a palmette and traces of a Hebrew inscription. These finds are an important addition to the growing corpus of both inscribed and uninscribed seals that have been unearthed in Jerusalem in recent years.
Member in the Entourage of Yahweh: A Uraeus Seal from the Western Wall Plaza Excavations, Jerusalem
Keywords: Jerusalem, Iron Age, art, glyptics, iconography, deity, Bible
A seal engraved with a four-winged uraeus was discovered in the area near the Iron Age four-room house in the Western Wall Plaza excavations, Jerusalem. The rendering is schematic, emphasizing the unsophisticated workmanship of the seal. This seal joins quite a few similar late eighth- or seventh-century BCE representations from Judah, hinting at an association of the four-winged uraeus with Yahwistic symbolism.
Inscriptions and Incised Potsherds from the Western Wall Plaza Excavations, Jerusalem
(Hebrew, pp. 1–12; English summary, pp. 87*–88*)
Keywords: Jerusalem, Judah, Iron Age, epigraphy, paleography
Excavations conducted approximately 100 m west of the Western Wall in Jerusalem revealed many incised pottery fragments bearing inscriptions and other markings. The form of the letters on the inscribed potsherds is generally consistent with the style common in Judah during the eighth–sixth centuries BCE. The markings were classified into five categories, four of which resemble similar groups of marks found at other sites, and the fifth consists of assorted marks, many of them unique. The assemblage exhibits clear similarities to assemblages found elsewhere in Jerusalem and at other Judahite settlements.
A Scarab from the Western Wall Plaza Excavations, Jerusalem
Keywords: Jerusalem, Iron Age, art, glyptics, iconography, deity, Egypt
A scarab was found in a quarry west of the Iron Age four-room house unearthed in the Western Wall Plaza Excavations, Jerusalem. The scarab, made of baked steatite, is fragmentary, and was probably trapezoidal. On its base are traces of the name of the Egyptian god Amun-Re. Based on the features of the scarab and the inscription, the object was most probably produced during the time of Dynasty XXII (945–713 BCE).
Tombs and Installations from the Iron Age II to the Byzantine Period from South Horbat Tittora
(with contributions by Gabriela Bijovsky and Yossi Nagar)
(Hebrew pp. 13–92; English summary, pp. 89*–91*)
Keywords: agriculture, industry, roads, burial, anthropology, pottery, metal
The excavation was conducted south of Horbat Tittora, in Modi‘in. The finds indicate the presence of an agricultural settlement that was active mainly from Iron Age II through the Byzantine period; also present at the site were installations dating to the Early Islamic, Mamluk and Ottoman periods. Among the installations are burial complexes and tombs, used continuously from Iron Age II until the Late Roman period; winepresses, ranging in date from the Hellenistic to the Byzantine periods; olive presses and crushing installations; quarries of various sizes; two limekilns; and twelve plastered cisterns.
The Flint Assemblage from South Horbat Tittora
Keywords: Flint, ad hoc tools, chronology, typology
The flint assemblage consists of 311 items, which were collected in salvage excavations near Horbat Tittora, in Modi‘in. Most of the complete bifacials are characteristic of early Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) assemblages, while several tools have close parallels in assemblages of the later PPNB horizon. Two flint items were dated to subsequent periods: the Chalcolithic period and Early Bronze Age I–II.
Three Persian-Period Metallic Finger Rings from Burial Cave 2,
South Horbat Tittora
Keywords: jewelry, Achaemenid motifs, cast-iron technology, Anatolian-Syrian coast, art, iconography, production
Three metal finger rings were found in a repository in a burial cave, excavated at South Horbat Tittora. The rings are all-metal products, and they are relatively well-preserved. They were dated to the Persian period (fifth–fourth centuries BCE), based on their shape, decoration and excavated parallels. They comprise a welcome addition to the relatively small number of all-metal rings from the Persian period that has been found in the country.
Late Byzantine Buildings on the Eastern Fringes of Tel Shiqmona
(Hebrew, pp. 99–129; English summary, pp. 93*–94*)
Hagit Torge and Uzi ‘Ad
Keywords: Carmel, architecture, ethnicity, Christianity
Excavations at Tel Shiqmona, located on the southern outskirts of Haifa, revealed the remains of ashlar-built residential structures (Areas A–C); a large building, probably a basilica church (Area D/E); a foundation of a (city?) wall (Area F); two compounds (Area G), probably part of an industrial area; and a rock-hewn well (Area H). Based on the pottery vessels, metal artifacts, glass finds and coins, it seems that the buildings in Areas A–E were constructed during the second half of the sixth century CE, and were probably part of a neighborhood situated along the eastern fringes of the settlement. The buildings were destroyed and abandoned, apparently following an earthquake during the seventh century CE. The settlement was inhabited by a mixed population of Jews and Christians.
Glass Vessels from the Late Byzantine Buildings along the Eastern Fringes of Tel Shiqmona
(Hebrew, pp. 131–134; English summary, p. 95*)
Keywords: Carmel, glass, typology
More than 1000 fragments of glass vessels were found in the excavation along the eastern fringes of Tel Shiqmona, of which c. 625 were identified. All the vessels were free-blown and produced from colorless, bluish green and greenish glass. The vessels include bowls, lamps, cups and goblets, a jar and bottles. They are of types that are
well-known in Israel during the Late Roman and Byzantine periods. Also found were small fragments of round windowpanes and glass tesserae, probably used in a wall mosaic.
Marble Items from the Late Byzantine Buildings along the Eastern Fringes of Tel Shiqmona
(Hebrew, pp. 135–142; English summary, p. 96*)
Keywords: Carmel, stone, art, iconography, Christianity, Church, cross
Marble items found in the excavation at Tel Shiqmona include fragments of chancel screens, one of them decorated with the head of an animal—a ram or sheep; Corinthian capitals, characteristic of the fifth–sixth centuries CE; a column; carved items; and pavers and wall liners. Most of the marble items were found in a building that was probably a church, located in Area D/E.
The Mosaic from the Building (Church?) on the Eastern Fringes of Tel Shiqmona
pp. 143–145; English summary, p. 97*)
Keywords: Carmel, stone, art, Christianity, Church, cross
The mosaic was discovered in a building identified as a church, which was uncovered in Area D/E at Tel Shiqmona. The tesserae, of limestone, occur in shades of white, black, turquoise, red and yellow. The pattern of the central carpet is one of intertwined circles that form a motif of adjacent Maltese crosses. Based on the ceramic finds that were recovered from the bedding and the fill below it, the mosaic should be dated to the beginning of the seventh century CE.
Roman and Byzantine Coins from the Excavation on the Eastern Fringes of Tel Shiqmona
Keywords: numismatics, stratigraphy, pentanummi, nummi
A total of 194 coins were uncovered on the eastern fringes of Tel Shiqmona; 71 of them were identified. Except for one Seleucid-period coin, minted in Tyre during the second century BCE, all the coins belong to one continuous period beginning in the early fourth century and ending with the reign of the Byzantine emperor Maurice (582–602 CE).
Was Shiqmona Devastated by an Earthquake in the Seventh Century CE?
Keywords: geology, limestone bedrock, paleosol
Excavations at Tel Shiqmona have revealed that the Byzantine city was demolished in an abrupt and violent event during the seventh century CE. During excavations carried out to the southeast of Tel Shiqmona, some wall deformations were observed. The nature of these deformations is described and evaluated in this paper.
Remains of the Mamluk and Ottoman Periods at Kafr Kanna
Hervé Barbé and Anastasia Shapiro
Keywords: Galilee, medieval period, architecture, typology, metal
Two separate areas (Areas 10 and 20) were excavated on Churches Street in Kafr Kanna. In Area 10, five phases were observed, ranging in date from the Mamluk (construction phase) through the Ottoman (destruction phase) periods. The pottery finds display a relatively homogeneous Mamluk-period corpus, including glazed and unglazed wares, which date between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries CE. The pottery finds and the stone objects (e.g., grinding and crushing tools) attest to domestic activities. In Area 20, remains of wall segments and floors were encountered. The dismantling of the floors, and the excavation of the intermediate fills, produced some Mamluk-period pottery; however, the primary pottery assemblages were Ottoman.
An Ancient Wall Built to Prevent Erosion on the Bank of Nahal Sha‘al in the Northern ‘Akko Plain
(Hebrew, pp. 93–99; English summary, p. 92*)
Nimrod Getzov, Hanaa Abu-‘Uqsa, Noam Greenbaum, Dina Vachtman and Moshe Inbar
Keywords: Galilee, geomorphology, wadi, flood erosion
Excavations near the Nahal Sha‘al streambed exposed a massive wall aligned in a roughly north–south direction. The eastern side of the wall is constructed of dressed stones cemented with lime mortar; the western side is irregular. At the base of the wall, a slope was constructed of lime mortar, reaching, at its thickest, up to one meter in width. Based on the scant pottery finds from the mortar fill between the stones, the construction appears to date from the Late Roman period. The wall would appear to have been constructed to prevent erosion of the bank at this particular place.
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