‘Atiqot 64 (2010)
The Cross-Israel Highway and Archaeological Research
Keywords: Cross-Israel Highway Company, project, road construction
The Cross-Israel Highway project was initiated in 1992. From the start, it was clear that archaeological research would play an important part in the planning and subsequent construction of the road. The exceptional professional cooperation between the Israel Antiquities Authority and the Cross-Israel Highway Company assured the preservation of our national heritage, while furthering the paving of the highway.
Archaeological Surveys and Excavations along the Cross-Israel Highway: An Introduction
Keywords: survey, documentation, project planning
Archaeological investigations along the Cross-Israel Highway were conducted in several stages. First, the main tells along the projected route were marked and the route was planned to bypass them; then, comprehensive surveys commenced, during which all sites were documented, including recommendations as to which of them should be excavated and to what extent. Trial excavations followed, in cooperation with the archaeological institutes of the universities. Subsequently, salvage excavations were conducted in accordance with the data retrieved from the surveys and trial excavations. The intensive surveys and excavations along the Cross-Israel Highway revealed sites that had been hitherto unknown and, in addition, provided important data concerning previously documented sites.
Archaeological Surveys and Excavations along the Cross-Israel Highway: A Case Study for Data Collection from the Field
(Hebrew, pp. 3*–61*; English summary, pp. 153–155)
Keywords: survey methods, geographical regions, settlement dispersion
The archaeological surveys and excavations along the Cross-Israel Highway provide for a rare opportunity to examine data retrieved from surveys versus excavation results. A total of 125 sites, dispersed over five different geographical regions, were documented, including settlements, installations, quarries, burial caves and ancient roads. The vast data acquired along the route provides invaluable information concerning settlement patterns and distribution throughout various periods. It is noteworthy that most of the excavation results mirrored those of the surveys. However, sites dating to the prehistoric and Chalcolithic periods, as well as the Intermediate Bronze Age, were often unnoticed in the surveys and they were detected only in probes. Following the survey and excavation results several sites were saved from destruction and preserved for generations to come.
Prehistoric Investigations along the Cross-Israel Highway: State of Research
hamoudi Khalaily and Ofer Marder
Keywords: prehistory, burial sites, prehistoric settlements, prehistoric caves
Prehistoric research along the Cross-Israel Highway was undertaken from the earliest planning stages of the archaeological surveys along the intended route. During this survey, much data was accumulated concerning site function, economics, intra-site interaction etc. In the systematic survey and the subsequent excavations, 31 prehistoric sites were identified, dating from the Lower Paleolithic period to the Chalcolithic period, covering a time span of c. 500,000 years. This review presents a brief description of the surveyed and excavated sites for which there is available data, as well as a comparison with other sites from the same period.
Remains from the Late Prehistoric to Early Islamic Periods at the Foot of Tel Malot (East)
Giora Parnos, Ianir Milevski and Hamoudi Khalaily
Keywords: pottery kiln, winepress, hinterland, graves, pits
This report presents the results of two separate salvage excavations conducted east of Tel Malot in the region of ‘Emeq Ayyalon. The earliest presence at the site dates to the early Pottery Neolithic period, comprising an occupation horizon and pits. Several other pits contained artifacts of the Chalcolithic period. The excavated area was also settled during Middle Bronze Age II, and possibly through Late Bronze Age I, when the area served for agricultural and industrial activities. Remains from the Iron Age and Persian period are meager. A winepress from the Hellenistic period suggests the existence of a farming community at the site. The Byzantine period is best represented in this area, covering three centuries (fifth–seventh centuries CE). During the Early Islamic period, the area seems to have been used for burial. The finds at the eastern foot of Tel Malot form an archaeological picture that is characteristic of areas adjacent to urban centers.
Petrographic Results of Middle Bronze Age Pottery from a Kiln at Tel Malot (East)
Keywords: pottery kiln, geology, soil groups
Seven vessels retrieved from inside the Middle Bronze Age II kiln at Tel Malot were sampled and petrographically studied. The significance of conducting a petrographic analysis of pottery found in a kiln lies in the reference data it provides concerning local production. The analysis of the potsherds from the MB II kiln at Tel Malot indicates that the raw materials were obtained locally.
Faunal Remains from Tel Malot (East)
Keywords: animal bones, husbandry
A small assemblage of 36 animal bone fragments was retrieved from loci dating to the Pottery Neolithic period and the Middle and Late Bronze Ages at Tel Malot (East). The predominant species were sheep and goats, exploited for husbandry and for secondary products at the site, and probably also for meat.
An Early Bronze Age Tomb of the ‘Common People’(?) in the ‘En Esur (‘Ein Asawir) Cemetery
Amir Gorzalczany and Jacob Sharvit
Keywords: cemetery, burial goods, social status, commerce
Within the boundaries of the ancient cemeteries associated with the protohistoric settlement of ‘En Esur, another tomb (T80), dated to EB IB–EB II, was discovered. A close examination of the burial gifts reveals a notable regionalism, in contrast with the imported and luxury goods discovered in other tombs in the ‘En Esur cemeteries. The local nature of the finds and lack of prestige items, as well as the anthropological analysis of the interred, might suggest that a less-affluent group of people was buried here.
Petrographic Analysis of Pottery from the Early Bronze Age Tomb 80 in the ‘En Esur Cemetery
Keywords: samples, local, marl
The petrographic analysis of the pottery finds within Tomb 80 in the ‘En Esur cemetery point to their local nature, as suggested by the excavators. The raw material used for all these samples is unidentified marl and the non-plastic components reflect the geological environment of the site.
The Beads from Tomb 80 in the ‘En Esur Cemetery
Keywords: jewelry, burial goods
Twenty-four beads were recovered from Tomb 80 in the ‘En Esur cemetery. These were divided into three groups according to their material: stone, faience and shell. The beads are typical of, but not exclusive to, the Early Bronze Age.
Human Skeletal Remains from Tomb 80 in the ‘En Esur Cemetery
Keywords: life expectancy, population, socio-economic staus
The human skeletal remains from Tomb 80 in the ‘En Esur cemetery indicate that a minimum number of 94 individuals were buried there during Early Bronze Age I. The life expectancy calculated for the interred seems to support the excavators' hypothesis concerning their lower socio-economic status.
Horbat Nazur: Settlement Remains from the Iron Age through the Hellenistic Period and an Industrial Area from the Byzantine Period
(with contributions by Roni Tuag and Varda Sussman)
(Hebrew, pp. 63*–97*; English summary, pp. 156–159)
Keywords: building, quarry, winepress, hinterland
Five excavation areas were investigated at Horbat Nazur, between Nahal ‘Iron in the north and Nahal Narbeta in the south. In Areas A and B the remains of a massive building, dating from the Hellenistic or possibly the Persian period, were uncovered. Area C was probably part of the agricultural hinterland of the settlement, revealing various installations, terrace walls and fences of unknown date. In Area E, two burial caves, quarries and a winepress were unearthed, all dating to the Byzantine period.
Two Stamped Amphora Handles from Horbat Nazur
Donald T. Ariel
Keywords: Rhodes, reading conventions, eponym
Two stamped amphora handles of the Rhodian class were discovered in Area B at Horbat Nazur. Both date to the second–third centuries CE.
Glass Vessels from the Byzantine Period at Horbat Nazur
(Hebrew, pp. 99*–104*; English summary, p. 160)
Keywords: mold blown, decorations, cylindrical jug, burial offerings
Some 700 glass fragments were recovered from two burial caves exposed in Area E at Horbat Nazur. Most of the vessel types are characteristic of the Byzantine period (fourth–sixth centuries CE). The assemblage is dominated by closed-vessel types, as is typical of burial offerings of the period, suggesting that at least some of the vessels correspond to the burial phase.
The Coins from Horbat Nazur
Keywords: Akko-Ptolemais mint, Antiochus IV, Seleucid period
Twenty-one coins were discovered in Area B at Horbat Nazur. Most of them date to the Hellenistic period. One coin (No. 13) features Antiochus IV on the obverse and a seated female goddess(?) on the reverse. Several coins of this type were found throughout the country, pointing to a local mint. Two provenances were previously offered for this type: Jerusalem and the Israel west bank. In this article it is suggested that this coin-type was minted at ‘Akko-Ptolemais.
Baqa el-Gharbiya Area: A Roman-Period Cemetery and Other Finds
(with contributions by Peter Gendelman, Donald T. Ariel and Hamoudi Khalaily)
(Hebrew, pp. 105*–136*; English summary, pp. 161–162)
Keywords: burial, Essenes, Nabbatean, cemetery
Excavations at the southern and eastern fringes of Horbat Kosit, west of Baqa el-Gharbiya, uncovered the peripheral area of the site, which was exploited for various industrial uses and for burial. At Horbat Kosit (East) three strata were recorded, the main one (Stratum III) including a Roman-period burial ground. The site of Nahal Hadera (North) yielded 24 rock-cut graves of a type previously assigned to the Essene or the Nabbatean populations. At Horbat Kosit (South), numerous rock-cut installations, cisterns and a tomb were recovered; the finds date from Early Bronze Age I to the Roman period.
Baqa el-Gharbiya Area: The Glass Vessels from Horbat Kosit (East)
Keywords: glass production, domestic vessels, glass distribution, Nahal Hadera area
orbat Kosit, west of Baqa el-Gharbiya, yielded glass vessels dating from the Roman and Late Roman–early Byzantine periods. The simple repertoire comprises mainly plain vessels of fairly local types. The style of workmanship, the predominance of certain types and the uniformity of the fabric suggest that these vessels could have been manufactured locally. The assemblage from Horbat Kosit add to our knowledge regarding the distribution of glass vessels in the Nahal Hadera area during these periods.
Baqa el-Gharbiya Area: The Glass Vessels from Nahal Hadera (North)
Keywords: burial offerings, mold blown, local production, polygonal juglet
The glass vessels retrieved from a burial cave (L124) at the site of Nahal Hadera (North) were found mostly intact; all of them are blown. The similarities in shape, pattern and slightly careless manufacture suggest they were locally produced. The vessels belong to two burial phases, dating from the late first–second centuries CE and the late third–fourth centuries CE, providing new data concerning glass burial offerings in the coastal plain during the Roman period.
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